A cover letter is a brief letter that introduces a CV. It gives an indication why an applicant is a good match for a vacancy. All CV's sent, whether by post or email, should be accompanied by a cover letter. Some employers aren’t too bothered about cover letters. However, a lot of recruiters will ignore a CV without a cover letter.
In other words, including a cover letter WON'T harm your job application. Not including one CAN harm it.
An employer could have many jobs advertised and a CV on its own won’t tell the employer which job you’re applying for.
An employer will also want to know where you saw the job advert. Bear in mind the same job could be advertised through different avenues. The employer can identify and analyse trends on where suitable/unsuitable applicants are seeing the job adverts.
The cover letter also demonstrates your writing style. Your CV is more to the point whilst the cover letter is you speaking to the employer (metaphorically). Besides, it's accepted business etiquette to send a cover letter with a CV.
The cover letter is the first document an employer sees, even before the CV. In this sense, it is more important than the CV and sets the tone for your application.
One format of a cover letter is a hard copy version. About 15 years ago this would have been the most common type of cover letter. The increased use of internet has reduced its use as more CVs started to get emailed.
This leads to the next format, an email version of it. This is the most common type of letter. Most of the content between a hard copy and email cover letter would be similar. The main differences between them relate to one being a physical letter whilst the other is a business email.
A growing trend is sending a video cover letter. Essentially this is a short video you make introducing yourself and promoting yourself to a recruiter. A company usually asks for this type of cover letter when they want to see more of your personality. Some people send this whether the job advert asked for it or not. It's a good way to showcase your personality and be different.
are 3 different types of cover letter.
The type relates to the purpose of the letter.
This web page is mainly about targeted cover letters. This is the most common type of cover letter.
To understand what makes a good cover letter, think about the following analogy. Imagine you're interested in a product, say double glazing windows. You ring a company and they send you a nice glossy brochure. The brochure is not likely to be personally addressed to you as they get printed in bulk. It will include a short cover note instead.
A good cover note is likely to be:
· personally addressed to you
· on letter headed paper
· short and to the point
· thanking you for your interest
· gently encouraging you to explore the brochure
· professional and free of errors
· explaining why the company/product is good and stands out
· leaving contact details if you needed more information
This is not an exhaustive list. The company goes to the extra effort of sending the cover note as a courtesy. Sending a brochure without a cover note won't be the end of the world. But it isn't a personalised effort and makes a potential customer feel like a number.
Cover letters you send out are a cover note for your brochure (CV). So the good ones are professional, personalised and a mini sales pitch for you. Their purpose is to introduce you positively. You don't get a second chance to make a good first impression.
The letter has to influence the reader to delve into the CV with a view to inviting you to an interview. But it can't directly say so or plead for an interview.
IT SHOULD INCREASE YOUR CREDIBILITY. Make a note of that.
There are 5 parts to writing a good cover letter.
· Research the company
· Write down what you like about the company
· Write down why they will like you/why you are a good fit
· Put it all together
· Then edit until perfect
We'll go into each part in more detail below.
starting the letter always start with the mentality that its aim is to
meet the employer’s needs. You are the
solution to their problem. Thoroughly research the company. Look on
their social media accounts and website. Sites such as Glassdoor also give
you information about a company.
Find out the mission statement/values and any latest news about the company. Time researching is never wasted as it will also come in useful when you are at the interview stage.
Understand how you fit into the big picture for the company. Understand the benefits you bring them. It's all about how you sell those benefits. Good selling is not about manipulating people into buying things they don't need. It's about thoroughly understanding a prospect's needs. Then channelling an interaction towards suitable products or services that meet those needs.
After doing the research you should be familiar with the company. Other points to consider are:
Are you a fan of their products or services?
Are they on the verge of a technological breakthrough?
Is it a company constantly in the public eye?
Is it run by someone constantly in the public eye?
Are you a shareholder so have a commercial interest in the company?
Whatever the reason it's important you can answer this question.
Don’t worry about it being perfect at this stage. Editing will be later. Write down a few versions of what you want to say if you can’t decide. Get the words down. Write whatever comes to mind. Make sure there is enough detail. Extra words will be eliminated later.
This is a delicate balance between selling yourself but not bragging or exaggerating. A company usually hires a particular person for their skill, experience or attitude. Having all three can make you seem a potential superstar.
You can measure skill and experience, but not attitude. It's more difficult to show passion on paper than in person. Every candidate will say they want the job but not many can show genuine enthusiasm and passion.
If it is a company or role you're genuinely passionate about then you can say so. But be willing to show a matching energy at a job interview.
If your application shows obvious knowledge of the industry/company/role then that is evidence of enthusiasm. If your hobbies relate to the role, you can include them. After all, if you spend your spare time on something relating to a role it is evidence of enthusiasm too.
In addition, have you got a skill that is in demand? Any unique experience that you bring to the role. Any research you've been a part of? All these points are worth considering for inclusion. Again write anything that comes to mind, don’t worry about it being perfect at this stage.
Be wary of using negative language i.e. implying no-one is giving you a job. This can be read you are only applying through necessity rather than a genuine interest in the company.
Combine the information and answers you have so far into the initial draft of the letter. Write down a few versions of what you want to say if you can’t decide. Make sure there is enough detail to answer the questions above.
The main purpose here is to establish the core of the letter.
The core is made up of:
Salutation - the greeting such as "Dear Mr Smith". If you don't have a named contact then "Dear Sir/Madam" will suffice. You could always show initiative and try to find out the recruiter's name.
Opening paragraph - This outlines the job applied for and where it was seen advertised.
Something like “I am writing in response to your advert in the Guardian (March
11th) asking for a Building Surveyor.” You should include any job reference numbers. This
makes it easier for an employer/recruitment agency with many jobs advertised.
Second Paragraph - Use this paragraph to outline how you meet the key skills/qualities needed for the job. Explain why are you suitable for the job. You can also mention any relevant qualifications here. You can include things that are difficult to put in a CV such as emphasising you live near the work location.
Third Paragraph - Emphasise what can you do for the company. Answer the question what’s in it for the employer? If relevant to the position outline your career goal.
Last paragraph - thank the employer for the time spent viewing the application. Many applicants state “I look forward to hearing from you soon”. This implies work for an employer as it puts the onus on them. A more creative way to say this may be “I will contact you to discuss my application further”. This section may also include thanking the recruiter for reading the application.
Closing - The final part includes the complimentary close (yours sincerely). Avoid using “Yours faithfully” as this close means you don’t know the name of the recruiter.
A lot of time will be spent on the editing. The letter has to go from draft to perfect. This part starts with reading everything you have so far aloud. Reading aloud helps be aware of mistakes and the flow of the letter. Ask if all the sentences make sense. Are they clear?
Cut any fluff (extra words). Remember the letter has to be 1-page at the most. As mentioned earlier the cover letter needs to increase your credibility. Including a silly mistake will destroy it. Go over the do’s and don'ts below.
Be thorough and ruthless to get the draft looking more towards perfect. There are 3 technologies you need to use to help with this. First use spell checker to eliminate basic errors. Spell check isn't perfect so next use a grammar checker.
Grammarly is a good option for this. You can sign up for the free option or the monthly subscription if you'll use it more frequently.
The third technology is the Hemingway website. The idea behind this site is that it will point out long sentences and complex words. It helps to make your writing more powerful. After you're done with these give the letter a final check.
Here are some do's and don'ts to think about
when creating a cover letter.
Most people won't follow all the do's and don'ts above. By following them all it will give you a competitive advantage.
After printing from a good quality printer the hard copy version of the letter should be ready. However with the email version you want to make sure it's "readable". Whilst the email cover letter looks fine on YOUR computer, it might not look fine on OTHER computers.
Technical or compatibility issues are the final hurdle to clear. You will NOT be sending the cover letter as an attachment. So you don't have to worry about file types. You want to make sure the letter opens in different browsers/operating systems, the same way as on your PC. You also don't know which device the employer may use to open the email. Also consider that it's not as easy to read from a screen than it is from a hard copy.
To make sure your cover letter is as easy to read as possible try the following:
Format the email in plain text. That way it can be viewed by any reader.
Email your cover letter to a secondary email that you can open on your own phone.
Email to a friend and ask them about the appearance of the email.
Ask your friend(s) to test any hyperlinks to blogs, websites and social media profiles within the email. Or, they can test any hyperlinks to a video cover letter. Whilst they are testing they can also test any link within the attached CV. There is more information to consider about the technical aspects of CVs so click this link for more information.
Your friend could also check the content of the application whilst they're checking the technical aspects.
Email addresses with inappropriate words in them can get blocked by junk mail filters. The safest option is to use an email address that has your first name and second name from a large respectable domain such as Gmail. Avoid nicknames, slang, crude remarks or profanity in an email address. A spam filter is likely to stop these. Even if they sneak through they will destroy your credibility.
We've gone through some of the basics of cover letters. We’ve discussed different formats and different purposes of a cover letter. You’re aware of what makes a good cover letter. We discussed some practical strategies in drafting a cover letter too. You’ve done research into the company which will also be useful in drafting a CV relevant to that company/role.
The key is that it increases your credibility as a candidate. To this end, it is a perfect advocate for you. Well presented with content that appeals to the employer.
We've discussed getting a second opinion (even a third if you can). You will have some blindness to mistakes in your own work. You can combine this with testing the application out to make sure others can view it as you want them to. Be open minded and willing to act on feedback.
No-one can wave a magic wand and produce an application that gets an interview every time. You should keep a record of every application sent and its outcome. It gives you a basis to make improvements and track results. But you need to persevere, seek feedback and act on results. As your job applications improve you will get more job interviews.
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